These digital resources and select bibliography provide a good starting point for students, researchers and teachers to learn more about the reinterpretation and appropriation of ancient architecture, art, epigraphy, and other aspects of material culture in New York City and the United States.

Digital Resources:

Classical Reception Studies Network – a scholarly network that facilitates classical reception studies and scholarship.

Classical Association of the Atlantic States – learned society that supports Classical Studies in theAtlantic States (and provided vital support to this project).

The New York Classical Club – a vibrant organization dedicated to classical studies in New York City.

Mapping Mythology – about the locations of mythological sculptures in New York City.

Modern Classicisms – a cool King’s College Project about contemporary engagements with classical antiquity.

Classicizing Chicago Project – about the history of classical antiquity in Chicago

Classicizing Philadelphia Project – about the history of classical antiquity in Philadelphia. – most visited art history website with many videos and essays about classical art and architecture, as well as its afterlife in European and American art.

Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History – The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s website that has essays about different styles and periods of art.

Oxford Bibliographies – has multiple bibliographies about the reception of different aspects of classical antiquity, but it is behind a paywall.

The – Institute of classical Architecture and Art, which is focused on advancing the practice and principles of classical or “traditional” architecture in the United States (through courses, awards, and publications).

Google books,, and the Hathi Digital Trust digitized copies of many primary sources from the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries.


Beiswanger, William L. 1993. “Jefferson’s Sources from Antiquity in the Design of Monticello.” The Magazine Antiques 144.1 (July):58–69.

Bolotin, Norman and Christine Land. 1992. The Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition. Washington, D. C.: The Preservation Press (National Trust for Historical Preservation).

Brier, Bob. 1992. Egyptomania. Brookville, NY: Hillwood Art Museum.

Broderick, Mosette Glaser. 2010. Triumvirate: McKim, Mead & White: Art, Architecture, Scandal and Class in America’s Gilded Age. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Butler, Shane. 2016. “Introduction: On Origins of ‘Deep Classics.’ ” In Deep Classics: Rethinking Classical Reception. Edited by Shane Butler, 1–20. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Carrott, Richard G. 1978. The Egyptian Revival: Its Sources, Monuments, and Meaning, 1808–1858. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Crysler, C. Greig, Stephen Cairns and Hilde Heynen, eds. 2012. Sage Handbook of Architectural Theory. London: Sage.

Cooper, Wendy A. 1993. Classical Taste in America: 18001840. New York: Abbeville Press Publishers.

D’Alton, Martina. 1993. ‘The New York obelisk, or, How Cleopatra’s Needle Came to New York and What Happened When It Got Here.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, Spring, vol. 50, no. 4.

Dixon Hunt, J. 1988.“ A Dream of Old Europe: Crowninshield Garden, Delaware.” Landscape September, 48–53.

Dyson, Steven. 2001. “Rome in America.” In Images of Rome: Perceptions of Ancient Rome in Europe and the United States in the Modern Age, 57–70. Portsmouth, R.I.: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2001.

Handlin, David P. 2004. American Architecture. World of Art. New York: Thames and Hudson.

Hales, Shelley and Joanna Paul, eds. 2011. Pompeii in the Public Imagination from Its Rediscovery to Today. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hamlin, Talbot. 1944. Greek Revival Architecture in America: Being an Account of Important Trends in American Architecture and American Life prior to the War between the States. London; New York: Oxford University Press.

Hardwick, Lorna. 2003. Reception Studies, Greece and Rome New Surveys No. 30 in the Classics. Oxford: Published for the Classical Association by Oxford University Press.

Hardwick, Lorna, and Christopher Stray, eds. 2011. A Companion to Classical Receptions. Malden (MA): Wiley-Blackwell.

Harris, Neil, Wim de Wit, James Gilbert, and Robert W. Rydell. 1994. Grand Illusions: Chicago’s World’s Fair of 1893. Chicago: Chicago Historical Society.

Hitchcock, Henry-Russell. 1977. Architecture: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Revised Edition. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Holliday, Peter James. 2016. American Arcadia: California and the Classical Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press

Holmes, Brooke. 2016. “Cosmopoiesis in the Field of ‘The Classical.’ ” In Deep Classics: Rethinking Classical Reception. Edited by Shane Butler, 269–90. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016.

Howard, Hugh. 2006. Dr. Kimball and Mr. Jefferson: Rediscovering the Founding Fathers of American Architecture. New York: Bloomsbury.

Humbert, Jean-Marcel and Clifford Price, eds. 2003. Imhotep Today: Egyptianizing Architecture. London: University College London Press / Institute of Archaeology.

Hunt, John Dixon. 2004. The Afterlife of Gardens. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Gardner Coates, Victoria and Jon Seydl, eds. 2007. Antiquity Recovered: The Legacy of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum.

Gardner Coates, Victoria, Kenneth Lapatin, and Jon Seydl, eds. 2012. The Last Days of Pompeii: Decadence, Apocalypse, Resurrection. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum.

Garrett, Wendell. 1996. Classic America: The Federal Style and Beyond. New York: Universe Publishing.

Giguere, Joy. 2013. ‘ “The Americanized Sphinx”: Civil War Commemoration, Jacob Bigelow, and the Sphinx at Mount Auburn Cemetery’. The Journal of the Civil War Era, Vol. 3, No. 1, March: 62–84.

Giguere, Joy. 2014. Characteristically American: Memorial Architecture, National Identity, and the Egyptian Revival. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Jenkyns, Richard. 1992. Dignity and Decadence: Victorian Art and the Classical Inheritance. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Kallendorf, Craig, ed. 2007. A Companion to the Classical Tradition. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

King, Moses. 1892. King’s Handbook of New York City: an Outline History and Description of the American Metropolis. Boston: Moses King.

Kirker, Harold. 1969. The Architecture of Charles Bulfinch. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kreyling, Christine, Wesley Paine, Charles Warterfield and Susan Ford Wiltshire. 1996. Classical Nashville: Athens of the South. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.

Lapatin, Kenneth. 2010. “The Getty Villa: Recreating the Villa of the Papyri in Malibu.” In The Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum: Archaeology, Reception, and Digital Reconstruction. Edited by Mantha Zarmakoupi, 129–38. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Macaulay-Lewis, E. 2016. “The Architecture of Memory and Commemoration: The Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Memorial Arch Brooklyn, New York and the Reception of Classical Architecture,” Classical Receptions Journal 8 (4): 447–78.

Macaulay-Lewis, E. 2015. “Triumphal Washington: New York City’s ‘Roman’ Arch.” In War as Spectacle: Ancient and Modern Perspectives on the Display of Armed Conflict. Edited by Anastasia Bakogianni and Valerie Hope, 209–39. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Macaulay-Lewis, Elizabeth. “Classical Architecture in Europe and North America since 1700″ Classics – Oxford Bibliographies.” edited by Dee Clayman. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Accessed July 25, 2018.

Malamud, Margaret. 2009. Ancient Rome and Modern America. Malden, MA; Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Marconi, Clemente. 2015. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Art and Architecture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McDowell, Peggy, and Richard E. Meyer. 1994. The Revival Styles in American Memorial Art. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.

Meier, Lauren and Christopher Beagan. 2009. Woodlawn Cemetery. National Historic Landmarks Nomination, United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service NPS Form 10-900.

Moormann, Eric M. 2015. Pompeii’s Ashes. The Reception of the Cities Buried by Vesuvius in Literature, Music, and Drama. Boston, Berlin, and Munich: De Gruyter.

Palmer, Allison Lee. 2011. Historical Dictionary of Neoclassical Art and Architecture. Lanham: Scarecrow Press.

Pierson, William H. 1970. American Buildings and Their Architects. Vol. 1: The Colonial and Neoclassical Styles. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Richard, Carl. 2009. The Golden Age of the Classics in America Greece, Rome, and the Antebellum United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Richman, Jeffrey. 2008. Brooklyn’s Green-Wood Cemetery: New York’s Buried Treasure. Revised Edition. Brooklyn: The Cemetery.

Warren, Charles D., Carole Ann Fabian, and Janet Parks, eds. 2014. Sylvan Cemetery: Architecture, Art and Landscape at Woodlawn. New York: Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library and The Woodlawn Conservancy.

Wilson, Richard Guy. 2011. “Thomas Jefferson’s Classical Architecture: An American Agenda” in Thomas Jefferson, the Classical World, and Early America. Edited by Peter S. Onuf and Nicholas P. Cole, 99–127. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.

Winterer, Caroline. 2002. The Culture of Classicism: Ancient Greece and Rome in American Intellectual Life, 1780–1910. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Von Stackelberg, Katharine and Elizabeth Macaulay-Lewis, eds. 2017.  Housing the New Romans: Architectural Reception and the Classical Style in the Modern World. New York: Oxford University Press.